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Measurement Tools

Youth and Student Belonging


Attitude towards school 

School attitude questionnaire (SAQ)

Seker, 2011

California Healthy Kids Survey

California Department of Education, 2015

Elementary School Questionnaire

Middle School Questionnaire

Classroom Community Scale

Rovai, 2002

Identification with School Questionnaire

Voelkl, 1997

Source study

Measure of Belonging in Youth Development Programs 

Sense of belonging scale

Anderson-Butcher & Conroy, 2002

Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS)
Midgley et al., 2000

Psychological Sense of School Membership Scale

Goodenow, 1993

Source study

Research Assessment Package for Schools 
Institute for Research and Reform in Education, 1998

School Belongingness Scale
Arslan & Duru, 201
Source study


School Connectedness Scale 
Lohmeier & Lee, 2011

School Engagement Scale

Fredericks, Blumenfeld, Friedel & Paris, 2005.

Source study

School Success Profile

Bowen, Richman, Bowen, & Broughton, 2003

Sense of Social and Academic Fit

Walton & Cohen, 2007

Student Engagement in School (APA)

Lam et al., 2014

Student Engagement in Schools Questionnaire (SESQ)

Lam & Jimerson, 2008

Student Engagement Instrument (SEI)

Appleton & Christenson, 2004

Student Sense of School Community Scale

Roberts, Horn & Battistich, 1995

The Communities That Care Youth Survey
Communities That Care Ltd, 2010

The Hemingway Measure of Adolescent Connectedness 
Karcher, 2001 
Source Study

Youth Self Report for Ages 11-18
Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1987 

University Belonging

A Sense of Belonging in a University Community

Krafona, 2014

College Students’ Sense of Belonging

Ingram, 2012

Sense of Belonging

McBeath, Drysdale, & Bohn, 2018

Source study

The Belonging to University Scale
Karaman & Cirak, 2017


University Belonging Questionnaire

Slaten et al., 2017

University Life Survey: Place Attachment Scale 
Li, 2011

Teacher Belonging

Students’ and Teachers’ Sense of School as a Caring Community

Student Sense of School Community Scale, Teacher Sense of School Community Scale

Roberts, Horn & Battistich, 1995

General Belonging


Measures of Social Identification
Cruwys, Haslam, Dingle, Haslam, & Jetten, 2014

Measuring In-group Identification 
Leach et al., 2008

Motivation and Engagement Scale (MES)

Liem & Martin, 2012


Motivation and Engagement Scale – High School

Martin, 2013

Need to Belong Scale

Leary, 2013.

Source study

Perceived Belonging in Sport Scale
Allen, 2006


Perceived Social Isolation 
Loneliness Scale
Hughes, Waite, Hawkley, & Cacioppo, 2004


Psychological Sense of Organisational Membership

Cockshaw & Shochet, 2010

Source study

Sense of Belonging Instrument (SOBI)

Hagerty & Patusky, 1995

Social Connectedness

Van Bel, Smolders, Ijsselsteijn & deKort, 2009


Social Connectedness and Social Assurance Scales

Lee & Robbins, 1995

Social Connectedness Scale – Revised 
Lee, Draper, & Lee, 2001 

The General Belongingness Scale

Malone, Pillow & Osman, 2012


Measures from Dissertation/Thesis

Belonging, Conformity and Social Status in Early Adolescence

My Relationships with Other Kids My Age Belonging Measure

Grinman, 2002.


Measurement of school connectedness (MOSC) Questionnaire

Sugar, 2012.


School Attachment Questionnaire

Howard & Ziomek-Daigle, 2009

School Connectedness Student Survey
Johnson, 2010

Sense of Belonging among Middle School Students:

School Membership Questionnaire

Carson, 2014

University Connectedness Scale

Stallman & Hurst (no year)

Questionnaires not from Journals

High School Survey of Student Engagement

Guide and Toolkit (HSSSE and MGSSE)

Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) Questionnaire

Pupil Perspectives on School Belonging

School Engagement Scale

Student Engagement Measure

Practitioner Tools 

School Belonging Scale

Allen & Kern, 2018

School Belongingness Scale

Arslan & Duru, 2017

The Classroom Belonging Scale

Allen & Mckenzie, 2013



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